The area of ​​agricultural land in Ukraine has decreased by 2 million over the last 30 years.

Category

%

from the general

Area, thousand hectares

It is per person, ha

1. Arable land

55.3

33384

0.642

2. Forest areas

15.4

9297

0.179 th most common

3. Pastures and hayfields

12.4

7486

0.144 th most common

4. Under the water of our artificial "seas"

4.0

2410

0.0464

5. Perennial plantings

1.8

1080

0.0209

6. Tree-shrubs (plantings)

1.5

905.5

0.0174

7. Swamps

1.5

905

0.0174

8. Other lands

8.6

5191.8

0.0998

The largest areas of agricultural land in Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk and Kharkiv regions; the smallest are in Chernivtsi, Zakarpattia and Ivano-Frankivsk. Most arable land in Dnipropetrovsk, the least in the Transcarpathian region.

Every year 5-6 thousand hectares of land, a significant part of which is arable land, are allocated for storage of industrial and household waste, construction and other needs. As a result, the area of ​​arable land per capita in Ukraine has decreased on average to about 0.75 hectares. In densely populated western regions (Rivne, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Zakarpattia regions) this indicator is 0.57-0.16 ha. Therefore, the problem of rational use of soil and its protection is especially acute here.

Occupying a third of the territory of all Central European countries, Ukraine owns 40% of the world’s chernozems – the most fertile soils. Plowed land here is the largest in the world – 80%, and in Ternopil, Vinnytsia, Kirovograd – more than 90%. For comparison:

in England this figure is 29.6; in France – 32, in Germany – 32.3%.

The high level https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ of plowing of lands to some extent determines the development of unfavorable processes: erosion, formation of acid soils (increased by 1.8 million hectares), solonetzes and saline lands (increased by 2.9 million hectares).

If we summarize all the changes, then 22% of the territory of Ukraine can be characterized as severely and very severely affected and unsuitable for full use. The area of ​​agricultural land in Ukraine has decreased by 2 million hectares over the past 30 years, and arable land – by almost 1 million. After the Chernobyl disaster, 3 million 700 thousand hectares were withdrawn from use.

Earth bowels, their protection

Subsoil is a deposit of ore, oil, coal, salts and other minerals contained in the earth. Minerals include all natural mineral formations that humans use naturally or after processing.

Today it is difficult to find a branch of production where mineral resources are not used. They are of great importance to man:

energy source; raw materials for the production of numerous industrial products, household goods; raw materials for the synthesis of new substances with specified properties (replace wood, cement, fabrics); various building materials (Fig.).

Subsoil provides 75% of raw materials for the chemical industry, almost completely ensure the operation of all modes of transport. Mineral fertilizers, which are produced from minerals, are widely used in agriculture.

Mineral resources largely determine the economic potential of each country. However, their main feature is that, unlike plant and animal resources, they belong to the so-called non-renewable natural resources. Their use is a critical situation, which is associated primarily with a sharp increase in mining around the world.

Natural mineral resources of Ukraine. Our state has a powerful and developed mineral complex. 48% of its industrial potential, up to 20% of labor resources, 25% of national income are directly or indirectly connected with exploration, extraction, processing and use of mineral raw materials.

The diversity and reserves of mineral resources of Ukraine are estimated by foreign experts at 8 points on a 10-point scale. According to such a high figure, Ukraine is one of the world’s major mineral resources, and in terms of reserves of major minerals per capita is one of the first places in Europe. More than 200 types of minerals have been discovered in its bowels, for the extraction of which about 20,000 deposits have been discovered. According to the NAS of Ukraine, the needs of our country in natural resources were met as follows:%:

Graphite

700

Gypsum

106

Primary kaolin

400

Refractory clay

105

Mercury

250

Cement raw materials

one hundred

Bromine

250

Coal

95

Sulfur is native

200

Natural gas

22

Manganese

175

Potassium salts

12

Glass raw materials

167

Oil 

8

Kitchen salt

150

Magnesite 

0

Iron ore

140

Bauxite

0

Titanium ores

140

Apatity

0

Building stone

116

Fluorite

0

Mining (quarries, mines, wells) significantly affect natural landscapes. Only on the territory of Donbass mining works are carried out on the territory of about 10,000 km2.

During the years of existence of the coal industry around the mines formed thousands of heaps, which occupy a large area of ​​mostly fertile land. In addition, specific sources of pollution are formed, such as mine waters, which have an annual volume in this region of about 1 billion m3, which are discharged into the surface of water bodies and streams. This leads to the death of biota, siltation of reservoirs, deterioration of drinking water supply, degradation of irrigated lands. The consequence of this is that in many Donbass wells the water is so polluted that it is impossible to drink it. Currently, 90 villages use imported drinking water.

Land reclamation (renewal) is a set of works aimed at restoring the fertility and economic value of disturbed lands. There are two stages of reclamation:

Mining – during which the empty rock is filled with dips, leveled embankments, arrange terraces on the slopes. Biological – which involves the selection of groups of living organisms, the activities of which will help restore fertility in the affected area and the overall health of landscapes; sowing areas with legumes, which enrich the soil with nitrogen and loosen it with their root system.

In the technology of reclamation of disturbed lands can be divided into three main groups of practical tasks:

development of technological measures for the reconstruction of territories for the successful formation of vegetation, which corresponds to the natural features of the area; development of measures for the protection of the renewable landscape; use of technical means of soil transfer, surface planning, transportation of materials (Fig. 5,6).

Fig. 5. Types and stages of land reclamation.

Fig. 6. Types of violations of coal regions and engineering measures for their restoration.

The task of reclamation is not only the return of land for use in agriculture and forestry, but also to prevent its further degradation, the creation of sustainable ecological systems, the improvement of the natural environment of the region.

Land reclamation should be carried out on the basis of landscape and ecological principles, which provide for the optimal ratio of different areas of rehabilitation of disturbed areas, creating productive cenoses, increasing and reproducing the fertility of reclaimed soils and preventing the negative impact of man- made formations on the environment.

The area of ​​disturbed lands in Ukraine is over 190 thousand hectares. Purpose of reclaimed lands of Ukraine – agriculture, forest plantations, reservoirs, buildings, recreational (for recreation centers), etc.

The Law of Ukraine on the Protection of the Natural Environment and Resources provides for measures to protect the subsoil and strengthened administrative and criminal liability for land pollution and deterioration of land resources.

The problem of extraction and use of minerals is becoming increasingly important today. According to experts, all raw materials extracted from the earth’s interior for the year can be loaded into a railway train 700 thousand km long, which can 17 times encircle the globe at the equator. However, most materials taken from nature remain unused. Despite advances in production technology, almost 98% of nutrients go to waste. For example, the loss of coal during production is 27%, ie every fourth ton remains in the subsoil; mining and chemical raw materials in the mines remains from 20 to 50%.

The main measures are aimed at improving soils:

Soil assessment and their rational use. Restrictions on the use of mineral fertilizers. The correct system of agriculture, the introduction of crop rotation. Erosion control. Improving soil properties, increasing their yield. The correct system of reclamation measures. Contamination control. Soil monitoring – analysis, assessment and forecast of soil condition. Reclamation of disturbed lands.

03.07.2011

Prevention of marine pollution: international legal acts. Abstract

Pollution of soil, air, water, which form the biosphere of our planet in just a few decades has reached such proportions that you can often find quite pessimistic predictions about the future of mankind due to environmental degradation

As early as 1969, the UN Secretary-General’s report to the Economic and Social Council noted that "in the history of mankind there is a global crisis that threatens both developed and underdeveloped countries – the crisis of the human environment." It becomes obvious that with the development of existing trends, life will be further endangered.

Almost all countries of the world to some extent have already faced the problem of the environment and are trying to solve it at the national level. However, no country, no matter how effective it takes in this direction, can feel safe until the environment of those areas that are in the common use of all countries and peoples is satisfactorily resolved. First of all, this applies to the World Ocean – not only a transport artery of global importance, not only a "treasure trove" of living and mineral resources, but also a major component of the Earth’s biosphere.

Despite the fact that at its core the problem of protection and preservation of the oceans, as well as the environment in general, relates to the field of natural sciences, an important role in its solution belongs to legal regulation. The fact is that the world’s oceans have a rather complex, so to speak, "legal structure" – the legal regime of its parts is far from the same.