Superficial thinking is the opposite of depth of thinking.
Its essence is that the layer of carbon dioxide, which freely transmits solar radiation to the Earth, will delay the return to the buy essay now compare and contrast upper atmosphere of thermal pollution. In this regard, the lower atmosphere will rise in temperature, which, in turn, will lead to melting glaciers, snow, rising oceans and seas, flooding much of the land.
Psychological properties of man. Thinking. Thinking is a process of cognition. The consequence of thinking is thought. The ability to think is a property of man.
Thinking – the process of reproducing the general properties of objects and phenomena, finding natural connections and relationships between them.
Thinking allows us to know what we do not directly observe, to predict the course of events, the results of our own actions, to predict the development of the process and the results of future actions; it is a person’s ability to make judgments and decisions correctly and quickly.
Mental actions and operations. Thinking (mental operations) consists of such processes as comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, concretization, generalization, which are interconnected and exist as a system of operations in which the action of each of them is an inverse operation.
The comparison determines the similarities and differences, the properties of certain objects. Everything in the world is known only by comparison.
Analysis – mental dismemberment of objects of consciousness, the selection of their individual parts, elements, signs and properties.
Synthesis – the mental union of individual parts, features and properties of objects into a single whole. Analysis and synthesis are opposite and at the same time inextricably linked processes.
Analysis and synthesis are opposite and at the same time inextricably linked, constantly alternating and intertwined. These are the basic operations of thinking.
Abstraction – the mental separation of some features and properties from others and from the objects to which they are inherent. Scientific thinking is abstract, because abstraction plays a leading role in the formation of the concepts in which it is manifested and which operates; abstraction prepares the basis for broad and thorough generalizations.
Cognition is the movement of thought from the concrete to the abstract and again to the concrete.
Concretization is the transition from the abstract to the concrete.
Generalization – the disclosure of general properties and relationships that exist in reality. The depth of generalizations also determines the range of predictions that a person can make.
Forms of thinking. There are three forms of thinking: judgments, inferences, concepts.
Judgment is the movement of our thinking, the identification and distinction of its objects, the transitions from the singular to the general, from the concrete to the abstract, and vice versa, from cause to effect, from part to whole.
Judgment – a form of mental reflection of objective reality. In judgment, we always affirm or deny the presence in a particular object of any signs, properties, connections with other objects.
A judgment is true if it adequately reflects the connections and relationships that exist in objective reality and that is verified in practice.
Reasoning is a series of interconnected judgments aimed at finding out the truth of an opinion, to prove it or deny it, to defend it in a dispute.
A conditional conclusion is a mental action or form of thinking in which a new judgment is derived from one or more in a certain way connected judgments that reflect the connected relations of objects or phenomena of objective reality. Inferences are inductive, deductive and similar.
Inductive inference – inference in which we go from facts to generalizations, from less general to more general judgments.
Deductive inference – inference in which we go from general judgments to partial and individual.
Induction and deduction are inextricably linked in human thinking. By means of induction the general conclusions are made. By deduction we apply them to new situations.
Analogy is an inference based on the similarity of some features of objects.
Thinking is logical if the course of thought correctly reflects the relationship of objects, phenomena of objective reality.
Concepts are formed in the process of thinking, in judgments and inferences about objects and phenomena of objective reality.
Each concept is characterized by a certain volume and content. The scope of the concept is the range of objects reflected in it, and the content is the set of their essential features reflected in it.
General concepts – concepts that reflect the essential properties of classes of objects.
Specific concepts – concepts that reflect certain objects, phenomena or their classes with their essential features, connections and relationships.
Abstract concepts reflect certain properties of objects separately from themselves (courage, goodness, value), which are always common.
Varieties of thinking. Thinking is based on common features common to all people, but also acquires distinctive features depending on the content of the tasks. According to this thinking is technical, scientific, artistic and so on.
Technical thinking is aimed at solving various technical problems.
Scientific thinking is aimed at solving theoretical, scientific problems.
Artistic thinking is manifested in the tasks of artistic depiction of the peculiarities of reality, including people, their lives, social and industrial relations.
Individual differences in people’s thinking. Thinking under certain conditions is characterized by depth, consistency, independence, critical thinking, flexibility, speed.
The depth of thinking is characterized by the ability of man to penetrate into the essence of cognizable phenomena, to reveal their causes, to search for their basics, to comprehensively clarify their connections with other phenomena of objective reality, to predict the course of events.
Superficial thinking is the opposite of depth of thinking. This is the satisfaction of a partial clarification of the connections of certain phenomena, insufficient differentiation of the clear and the incomprehensible, the proven and the unproven.
Consistency of thinking is the ability of man to follow his logical rules, not to contradict himself in his reasoning, to prove and justify their conclusions, to ensure that opinions flow from each other, do not deviate from the theme of reasoning; to adhere to a certain plan in the presentation of opinions, to control their course. Consistency is an essential property of right thinking.
Independence of thinking – a person’s ability to pose new problems, find new approaches to their solution, to show initiative in solving those problems that arise in everyday life. This is a necessary prerequisite for innovation in science and technology.
Critical thinking is the ability to revise views, theories that have already developed, to change them if they conflict with new data from science and practice.
Flexibility of thinking – the ability to change the way the problem is solved, to find new ways to solve it, to be free from the pattern in clarifying issues, taking into account the specific circumstances in which certain phenomena and events occur.
The inertia of thinking is measured by the time during which different people cope with the same cognitive tasks, correctly and reasonably solving them.
There are three types of thinking:
visual, active, associated with practical activities, figurative, in which objects are not directly perceived, but presented in memory (representation of some technological operations), abstract, when studying general concepts and patterns.
A special type of thinking, characteristic of the operator – operational thinking, which is carried out in the course of practical activities and is aimed at solving practical problems and is characterized by speed.
Properties of thinking, such as speed, ingenuity, intelligence, accuracy of action in the event of a sudden change of situation require special training both in real conditions and by modeling complex situations or their individual elements using simulators and special methods.
The effect of electric current on the human body. Passing through the human body, electric current has thermal, electrolytic, mechanical and biological effects.
The thermal action of the current causes burns to certain parts of the body, heating to a high temperature of the organs that are in the path of the current, causing them significant functional disorders.
Electrolytic action is accompanied by the decomposition of organic fluid, including blood, a violation of its physicochemical composition.
The mechanical action of the current is accompanied by stratification, rupture of body tissues due to the electrodynamic effect, as well as the instantaneous explosive formation of vapor from superheated tissue fluid and blood.
The current is manifested through irritation and excitation of living biological tissues of the body, as well as through a disorder of internal bioelectrical processes.
The above effects of electric current on the human body often cause various electric injuries, which are divided into local and general.
General electric injuries include electric shock in which various layers of the muscles of the human body are excited, which can cause convulsions, respiratory arrest and heart failure. The latter is associated with fibrillation – a chaotic contraction of individual fibers of the heart muscle (fibrils).
Local electric injuries include burns, metallization of the skin, electrical marks, mechanical damage, and electrophthalmia.
Burns occur due to the thermal effect of the passage of electric current through the human body, as well as the external influence of an electric arc. The appearance of burns can be different – from redness of the skin and the formation of blisters with fluid to charring of biological tissues.
Metallization of the skin is associated with the penetration of small metal particles during its melting under the action of an electric arc.
Mechanical injuries are caused by agitation and convulsive contraction of the muscles of the body, which can cause them to rupture or damage the skin, dislocated joints and even fractures.
Electrophthalmia – inflammation of the outer mucous membranes of the eyes due to the action of strong ultraviolet radiation of an electric arc.
Factors that affect the severity of electric shock are various. First of all, it is the strength of the current and the time of its passage through the human body, the type of current (alternating or constant), the path of current in the human body; at alternating current – its frequency.